Southern Italy is a most active tectonic and volcanic setting comprising active (Stromboli, Vulcano) or dormant (Lipari) volcanic islands in the Aeolian Arc, and the majestic Etna volcano (together with the Campanian volcanoes). They have attracted the attention of a great number of volcanologists and can be rightfully considered the cradle of the scientific discipline of Volcanology. In the Aeolian Arc, the main features are the incessant and rhythmic Strombolian exlosive activity of Stromboli and the Sciara del Fuoco collapse, together with the deposits of historical Vulcanian eruptions of Vulcano and its present-day intense fumarolic activity. The well-known Rocche Rosse obsidian lava flow and Mt. Pilato pumice are the traces of the Middle Ages activity of Lipari. On Etna, the geology of the valle del Bove depression and the summit craters and NE-Rift, and the 2001, 2002-03 and the 2011-2017 eruptive fissures and lava flow fields give an idea of the variability of its eruptive scenarios. The spectacular geology of these volcanoes and the INGV real-time monitoring network are the bases to discuss the main aspects of volcanic hazard and risk mitigation in case of future eruptions in a highly-urbanized territory characterized by intense tourism exploitation during the summer.